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Les grandes figures du leadership au sein d’un monde globalisé

PRINCETON – Dans un monde aujourd’hui globalisé, au sein duquel des modèles simples nous permettent de donner du sens à une si grande complexité, la chancelière allemande Angela Merkel et le président russe Vladimir Poutine s’opposent tels deux archétypes inverses du leadership national. Comme d’autres avant eux, ces personnages bien souvent totalement antagonistes – tels le ying et le yang – font naître un choix clair entre deux visions alternatives du monde.

Ceci se vérifie indéniablement au cours de précédentes périodes de tensions politiques et économiques. Au lendemain de la Première Guerre mondiale, par exemple, tandis que se désintègrent les systèmes politiques démocratiques, la majeure partie du monde, dans une réflexion quant à son avenir, a tendance à faire son choix entre d’un côté l’Italie de Benito Mussolini, et de l’autre la Russie de Vladimir Lénine.

Dans les années 1920, Mussolini persuade de nombreux acteurs étrangers d’avoir élaboré un système optimal d’organisation de la société, voué à en finir avec l’anarchie et l’autodestruction inhérentes au libéralisme traditionnel. Sous la conduite de Mussolini, L’Italie est encore intégrée à l’économie mondiale, et le corporatisme d’État, qui place l’accent sur une prétendue harmonie d’intérêts entre le capital et le travail, est considéré par beaucoup comme la promesse d’un avenir exempt de lutte des classes et d’affrontements politiques ciblés.

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