Johannes Eisele/AFP/Getty Images

رموز الزعامة في عالَم تحكمه العولمة

برينستون ــ في الثقافة العالمية اليوم، حيث تعيننا نماذج بسيطة على فَهم قدر كبير من التعقيدات، تجسد المستشارة الألمانية أنجيلا ميركل والرئيس الروسي فلاديمير بوتن نمطين أصليين متعارضين للزعامة الوطنية. ومثلهما كمثل غيرهما من قبلهما، يبرز كل منهما صورة مغايرة تؤسس لاختيار واضح بين رؤيتين كونيتين بديلتين.

وكان هذا صحيحا بكل تأكيد في فترات سابقة من الضغوط السياسية والاقتصادية. على سبيل المثال، في أعقاب الحرب العالمية الأولى، مع تفسخ العديد من الأنظمة الديمقراطية، تطلع كثيرون في العالَم إما إلى بنيتو موسيليني في إيطاليا أو فلاديمير لينين في روسيا لتحديد المستقبل.

في عشرينيات القرن الماضي، أقنع موسيليني العديد من المراقبين الأجانب بأنه ابتكر الطريقة المثلى لتنظيم المجتمتع، الطريقة التي تغلبت على الفوضى وتدمير الذات المتأصل في الليبرالية التقليدية. في عهد موسيليني، كانت إيطاليا لا تزال مندمجة في الاقتصاد العالمي، وكانت تحكم دولتها مؤسسات كبرى رسمية، وكان تركيزها منصبا على تحقيق الانسجام المفترض في المصالح بين رأس المال والعمل، وبدت في نظر كثيرين وكأنها تبشر بمستقبل من دون صراع طبقي أو نضال سياسي.

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