Vladimir Putin Alexei Druzhinin/ZumaPress

Le rêve soviétique de Vladimir Poutine

MADRID – Le récent accord nucléaire conclu par six grandes puissances mondiales auprès de l'Iran représente un véritable triomphe du multilatéralisme. Si ces mêmes puissances – les cinq membres permanents du Conseil de sécurité de l’ONU, accompagnés de l’Allemagne – démontraient une volonté similaire dans le cadre d’efforts conjoints visant la résolution d’autres contentieux, le monde pourrait alors espérer pénétrer dans une nouvelle ère de coopération et de stabilité.

Un tel scénario semble malheureusement peu probable. Qu’il soit question des agissements de la Chine en mer de Chine méridionale, ou de l’avancée constante de l’État islamique au Moyen-Orient, la compétition et le conflit ne cessent de menacer plusieurs ordres régionaux de longue date. Mais sans doute le conflit le plus critique – dans la mesure où ses retombées concernent l’ensemble des États – s’opère-t-il du côté de l’Ukraine, pays devenu la composante centrale des ambitions expansionnistes du président russe Vladimir Poutine.

L’annexion unilatérale de la Crimée par la Russie, ainsi que le soutien de cette dernière aux séparatistes d’Ukraine de l’Est, ont rompu les relations de la Russie auprès de l’Occident, Poutine faisant volontairement resurgir une atmosphère de guerre froide en vantant les « valeurs conservatrices » de son pays, en tant que contrepoids idéologique d'un ordre mondial libéral conduit par l'Amérique. Or, un certain nombre de problématiques majeures – carnage syrien, lutte contre l'État islamique, non-prolifération des armes nucléaires, ou encore conflits d’intérêts et revendications concurrentes en Arctique – ne pourront être résolues sans une implication de la Russie.

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