Vladimir Putin Jia Yuchen/ZumaPress

Putin explicado con sencillez

MOSCÚ – Tres semanas antes de la primera victoria en las elecciones del Presidente de Rusia, Vladimir Putin, en marzo de 2000, se publicó, como parte de su campaña, el libro Primera persona. Conversaciones con Vladimir Putin, basado en veinticuatro horas de entrevistas con tres periodistas. Con citas como “la vida es algo muy simple, en realidad”, el libro revelaba una creencia fundamental que subyacería al estilo de dirección de Putin: se puede y se debe imponer la sencillez a un mundo complejo.

Esa concepción del mundo, que hoy es omnipresente en la clase dirigente de Rusia, no fue concebida por el propio Putin; la introdujo un grupo de estudios creado en diciembre de 1999 y encabezado por German Gref, quien más adelante llegaría a ser ministro de Desarrollo Económico y Comercio en el gobierno de Putin. Adelantándose a la victoria de Putin, el Centro de Investigaciones Estratégicas de Gref pidió a unos expertos que formularan dos programas –uno centrado en la economía y el otro en la reforma de las administraciones públicas– basados en una dirección fundamental: la de no complicar las cosas.

Quince años después, la ideología, las políticas y las actividades de Putin reflejan esa obsesión por la simplificación de los sistemas y las estructuras. La separación de poderes en el Estado es demasiado ineficiente, por lo que la presidencia debe dominar todas las demás ramas. El gran número de partidos políticos, todos con su propio programa, es demasiado complicado, por lo que se debe substituirlo por una lista corta de unos pocos partidos aceptados, con una representación principal (y permanente) del poder. La libertad de expresión facilita una improductiva cacofonía de protestas, por lo que los medios de comunicación deben recibir directrices claras para que guíen sus informaciones.

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