EU Commissioner Competition Gazprom EU Commissioner/Wikton Dabkowski/Flickr

欧洲与俄天然气

纽约—多年来,俄罗斯普京一直把欧洲对俄罗斯天然气的依赖作为外交政策武器,丝毫不惧怕欧盟的虚张声势——现在情况有所不同了。欧盟对国有天然气集团俄天然气(Gazprom)发起了反垄断调查,这是一个明确的信号,普京的粗暴已不再像过去那样吓唬人了。

欧盟竞争委员会所释放的信号——市场规则面前人人平等——多年来一直为普京所不屑。用经济和法律手段取得政治目的一直是普京统治的标志。十多年前,克里姆林宫没收尤科斯石油公司(Yukos Oil,当时占俄罗斯产量的20%)并逮捕其创始人霍多尔科夫斯基(Mikhail Khodorkovsky),以伪造的逃税罪名关了他十年(因为他胆敢反对普京)。

俄罗斯以能源为核心的经济的所有大玩家很快纷纷就范,使普京得以将俄罗斯油气出口当作地缘政治大棒。囿于北约而无法采取军事恐吓的欧盟国家用折扣来拉拢——或者用涨价来惩罚。

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