EU Commissioner Competition Gazprom EU Commissioner/Wikton Dabkowski/Flickr

أوروبا في مواجهة غازبروم

نيويورك ــ دأب الرئيس الروسي فلاديمير بوتن على استخدام اعتماد أوروبا على غاز بلاده الطبيعي كسلاح ضغط في مجال السياسة الخارجية لسنوات، دون خوف من أن يرد الاتحاد الأوربي على تحديه ــ حتى الآن. لكن الاتحاد الأوروبي بإطلاقه قضية مكافحة احتكار ضد غازبروم، شركة الغاز العملاقة المملوكة للدولة الروسية، يرسل إشارة واضحة أن حماقة بوتين لم تعد مخيفة كما كانت في السابق.

الرسالة التي وجهها المفوض الأوروبي للتنافسية ــ ومفادها أن قواعد السوق تسري على الجميع ــ هي رسالة اعتاد بوتن على تجاهلها لسنوات. فلطالما كان استناد بوتن إلى ذرائع اقتصادية وقانونية لتحقيق أهدافه السياسية سمة مميزة لحكمه. فمنذ أكثر من عقد، صادر الكرملين شركة يوكوس أويل التي كانت تنتج آنذاك 20% من إجمالي إنتاج روسيا من النفط، وسجن مؤسسها ميخائيل خودوركوفسكي لعشر سنوات، حيث لفقت له تهم التهرب الضريبي بعد أن تجرأ على معارضة بوتن.

وسرعان ما انضوى كل اللاعبين الرئيسيين في الاقتصاد الروسي القائم على الطاقة تحت مظلة بوتن السياسية، الأمر الذي مكنه من استخدام صادرات الدولة من النفط والغاز كعصا جيوسياسية. أما دول الاتحاد الأوروبي التي لم يستطع إرهابها عسكرياً بسبب وجود الناتو، فكان يتودد إليها بالتخفيضات تارة ــ أو يعاقبها بزيادات كبيرة في الأسعار تارة أخرى.

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