Putin a Puškin

MOSKVA: Zatčením ruského mediálního magnáta Vladimira Gusinského dal Kreml znovu najevo – ať už na příkaz prezidenta Putina či nikoli – své obavy ohledně cenzury a kontroly veřejného mínění. Jsou jeho obavy opodstatněné? O čem svědčí zatčení Gusinského, svědčí-li o něčem?

Cenzuře ani gulagům se v Rusku nikdy nepodařilo úplně potlačit intelektuální život. Vzpomeňme jen namátkou Achmatovovou, Mandelstama, Šostakoviče, Pasternaka či Prokofjeva, kteří tvořili velká díla i navzdory období stalinského temna. Poněvadž si uvědomovali tuto nezničitelnost, čelní představitelé ruské politiky se odjakživa snažili dostat masové sdělovací prostředky pod svou kontrolu a umělce na svou stranu. Noviny se skláněly a umělci často vraceli objetí státu. Například Puškin kdysi vyhlásil: „Nejsem lichotník, pěji-li chválu svému carovi.“ Dokonce Mandelstam napsal – i když pod nátlakem – Ódu na Stalina, která jej nicméně zachránila před pobytem v gulagu a před jistou smrtí.

Lenin, Chruščov, Brežněv, Gorbačov – ti všichni stavěli svou vládnoucí sovětskou ideologii na základech ruské inteligence. Po pádu komunismu se Jelcin snažil odklonit intelektuální energii Ruska směrem k penězům a médiím. Vysoká kultura upadla v nelibost jakožto zábava starého Kremlu a byla ponechána svému osudu. Internet a masová média – ne poezie – se měly stát tahounem ruské občanské společnosti a dát jí náskok.

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