权力之外的目标

布达佩斯——6月17日的希腊议会重新选举不过是自20世纪60年代以来困扰西方民主和开放社会的严重危机的最新症状而已。今天西方自由民主国家都想拼命避免一场身份危机,但结果却使这场危机愈演愈烈,最终威胁到当前的社会契约,并有可能毁灭现有的社会秩序。

冷战结束后留给领导人一套全新的执政挑战,全球化速度加快、20世纪80年代经济自由化后遗症和20世纪90年代信息技术革命导致执政挑战不断加剧。由于这些挑战没有得到充分的解决,很快导致很多人开始怀疑自由民主制度在国内的持续性和国外的普遍性,并开始探讨所谓“中国模式”的优势,而“中国模式”往好处说也不过是某种形式的独裁或国家资本主义。

2008年的金融危机很快蜕变为20世纪30年代以来西方最严重的经济衰退,进一步加剧了对西方民主制度的怀疑,因为决策者采用完全不透明的危机管理模式,以前所未有的规模将私有部门应该承担的损失推向社会,纵容对经济实行大规模的国家干预。由此造成的财政紧缩加剧了经济不平等,导致很多人跌落到贫困线以下,而很多造成2008年萧条的私营机构却利用公共经费迅速恢复了元气。

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