Residents of Puerto Rico deal with damages to their homes as Hurricane Maria batters the island Hector Retamal/Getty Images

波多黎各需要什么

华盛顿—特朗普总统和美国国会正在受到越来越大的压力,要求他们增加对波多黎各的援助。上周的玛利亚飓风给波多黎各带来的灾难让波多黎各严重的长期问题——重要基础设施维护不力雪上加霜。波多黎各所需要的不仅仅只有短期援助(尽管这也颇为紧急);还需要两党共同支持它重建,其中,首要的重点是建立更稳定、更廉价的电力供应。

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现有电网已经处于基本瘫痪的状态,联邦经济管理局(FEMA)估算,高达90%的输电系统可能已经被飓风损坏。一座大坝状态危险。空中交通控制基础设施受损严重限制了进出波多黎各的航班数量。执政官里卡多·罗赛洛(Ricardo Rosselló)公开表示,波多黎各极有可能爆发重大人道灾难。捐赠正在涌入,但数量跟不上需要。

特朗普政府说,FEMA正在进行努力而有成效的工作。但愿他们说得对。波多黎各有大约340万美国公民,但愿他们能够在自然灾难来袭时获得和德克萨斯州和佛罗里达州(以及其他50个州)同样的支持。但更大的问题是:怎样,以及由谁来帮助波多黎各真正恢复?

波多黎各是美国的独立领地,它需要大手笔基本基础设施投资才能赶上美国50州的最低水平。在人道状况稳定下来后,决策者应该将重点放在为波多黎各提供稳定、可靠、高性价比的电力上,这些电力应该主要通过可再生资源产生,并通过可靠的小型分布式电网输送。确保能源普及对于稳定和持续经济增长是不可或缺的。

仅仅对年代久远的基础设施进行修补无法起到效果。更廉价、更可靠的电力将让所有人受益——不管是街头小贩,还是最先进的制药公司。而所需要的技术,今天的美国已经具备。

讽刺的是,破产的现任能源提供商波多黎各电力局(PREPA)把主要效率都用在了构建自己的竞争力方面。波多黎各岛电价比美国其他任何地方(除夏威夷外)都要高,而服务很不可靠。结果是越来越多的客户拒绝从PREPA购买电力,而是依靠自己的柴油发电机。

波多黎各金融监督和管理委员会复苏协调员(Revitalization Coordinator)诺伊尔·查莫特(Noel Zamot)指出,可以从零开始设计一个职能可靠的电网,该电网基于分布式发电,以减轻未来自然灾害或人为袭击的影响。更小更灵活的发电单元接入先进的监测和控制系统,以确保发生停电事故后能立即启动发电。

此外,至少50%的能源可以来自可再生资源(太阳能、风能、潮汐能等),包括通过先进的储存技术(一些技术目前还在开发阶段)实现。大部分长途输电线将实现屏蔽和埋设,合理部署传感器的信息策略能够更好地监测损失,不论来自什么原因。

这样一套电网将稳定现有企业的成本,有望减轻大部分中小企业的最大成本负担。它也能为真正的创新性未来情景创造条件。想象一下,波多黎各将成为世界电力资本之都,遍布充电站,几乎零排放,旅游业可共享汽车。波多黎各甚至可能成为能源出口国,向临近的美国和英属维京群岛输出过剩产能。

所有这些(除了可再生资源的大规模储存)都可以用现有技术实现。关键问题在于策略、组织和监管。有了政府的支持,并认识到有效的监管需要怎样的合理治理结构和流程,这一愿景可以在十年内实现。而建设这一电网还可以产生大量优质工作岗位。

联邦政府应该确保波多黎各成为不惧天气冲击的清洁、可再生能源的投资枢纽。投资所产生的新技术可以商业化,出售给疲于适应气候变化和极端天气的世界。

特朗普政府很难只凭借共和党的支持就让国会通过长期投资方案;出现各种意识形态上的反对是必然的。但对特朗普来说,这是一次向民主党示好的良机,也是一次证明双方能够合作重建和更新重要国家基础设施的良机。

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