政府资助的不平等

华盛顿——创新和全球市场的互动在收入分配制度顶层推动全球不平等和财富聚集效应大幅上升。由于监管保护和全球市场赢家通吃的本质,技术突破在叱咤风云的企业家手中可以带来数十亿美元的收入。但人们却往往忽视公共资金在创造个人财富聚集效应中的作用。

发展经济学家丹尼·罗德里克最近指出,美国新技术基础投资主要由公共基金驱动。具体形式既可以是由美国国防部或美国国立卫生研究院(NIH)等机构直接出资,也可以采用税收减免、采购及学术实验室或研究中心补贴等间接形式。

当许多研究不可避免地走进死胡同,一般由公共部门承担损失。但最终取得成果的情况却截然不同。一旦某种新技术地位确立,民营企业家就在风险投资的协助下对其进行改造,以适应全球需求、建立临时或长期垄断地位,进而获取巨额利润。而承担大部分研发费用的政府却基本得不到回报。

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