战争之祸,能免则免

华盛顿—美国第一任驻法国大使托马斯·杰斐逊坐在巴黎,沉思美国新政府如何避免欧洲“专制暴君”的覆辙。专制暴君通过战争和债务让人民屈从。在给詹姆斯·麦迪逊的信中,他观察道,美国宪法至少通过“将斥责的权力从执政者转交给立法机构,从花钱者转交给付钱者”抑制了“战争之祸”。

但是,与此同时,宪法给予执政者“三军统帅”的地位,美国总统可以行使这一权力在不经国会授权的情况下使用武力,适用这一条款的场合有200多种。总统奥巴马在告诉国会和美国人民他有越过国会下令对叙利亚实施有限打击之权时所凭据的便是这一权力。

奥巴马双管齐下,既宣告这一权力,也寻求国会授权,这使他跻身于少数积极寻求约束自身权力的领导人的行列。这是因为他的历史使命是成为结束战争、让战争更加难以开启、将美国的资源重新投资于美国人民的总统。2003年时,他反对伊拉克战争;2008年时,他承诺将结束无限度的“反恐战争”,借着这个名头,美国诸位总统在世界各地挑起战争。

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