Chris Van Es

Les fautes professionnelles conceptuelles de la psychiatrie

NEW YORK – La récente proposition de l’Association Américaine de Psychiatrie de modifier son manuel officiel de diagnostic – le Manuel diagnostique et statistique des troubles mentaux (MDS), souvent appelé la « bible de la psychiatrie » - pourrait discréditer le diagnostique psychiatrique plus que d’y contribuer. Le MDS spécifie les symptômes qui permettent d’établir un diagnostique pour chaque trouble mental, définissant ainsi de fait ce qui est psychologiquement normal et anormal aux Etats-Unis – et de plus en plus, pour une grande partie du reste du monde.

Réviser les critères de diagnostique du MDS pour la cinquième édition à paraitre (MDS-5) est une lourde responsabilité. Une ligne entre normalité et déséquilibre trop floue pourrait entrainer des diagnostiques erronés pour les individus et entrainer des traitements inutiles et potentiellement dangereux. L’histoire du MDS révèle nombre de ce genre d’erreurs de surcharge de paramètres.

Mais si les choses sont définies de façon trop étroite, les individus pourraient ne pas recevoir l’aide nécessaire. Bien que les psychiatres soient plus préoccupés d’identifier les patients potentiellement en besoin de traitement et moins d’éliminer excentricité normale et désespoir du diagnostique, il est crucial à n’importe quelle société qui respecte les variantes humaines et le sens des responsabilités morales de l’individu de distinguer une souffrance normale et de l’excentricité du trouble mental.

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