Chinese steel plant worker STR/Getty Images

Protekcionismus nikde pracovní místa neochrání

CAMBRIDGE – V době, kdy si američtí a evropští političtí lídři dělají starosti o budoucnost kvalitních pracovních míst, by bylo namístě podívat se na daleko větší problémy, jimž čelí rozvojová Asie – na problémy, u nichž hrozí riziko, že vyvinou značný tlak na snížení globálních mezd. V Indii, kde příjem na obyvatele dosahuje zhruba desetiny úrovně Spojených států, se více než deset milionů lidí ročně stěhuje z venkova do městských oblastí, přestože si tito lidé mnohdy nedokážou sehnat práci ani jako pouliční prodejci čaje, natož jako programátoři. Obavy o budoucnost pracovních míst, které pociťují Američané a Evropané, jsou v Asii o řád vyšší.

Měla by se Indie snažit napodobit tradiční výrobně exportní model, jehož průkopníkem se stalo Japonsko a posléze ho převzalo tolik dalších zemí včetně Číny? Kam tento model povede, pokud se většina pracovních míst stane v příštích pár desetiletích díky automatizaci zastaralými?

Samozřejmě je zde sektor služeb, kde v rozvinutých ekonomikách pracuje 80% populace a kde světu stále vévodí indický outsourcingový sektor. Bohužel ani zde není cesta vpřed hladká. Systémy automatického volání už nahradily značnou část globálního byznysu telefonních center a také řada rutinních programovacích míst zaniká v důsledku nástupu počítačů.

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