Shark marine environment Sebastien Filion/Stuart Cove's/Flickr

الموت والأمل في أعالي البحار

هاليفاكس، كندا ــ لقد سبقت أسماك القرش وبنات عمومتها أسماك الراي الديناصورات في الظهور على كوكب الأرض. وقد نجت من الانقراض الجماعي الكارثي الذي أجهز على التيرانوصوروس ريكس (ديناصور ضخم آكل للحوم عاش في أواخر العصر الطباشيري)، وكل بقية الديناصورات، كما نجت من انقراض العصر البرمي الترياسي الذي قضى على نحو 96% من الأنواع البحرية. وحتى السلالات التي تطورت في زمن أقرب إلى الوقت الحاضر من أسماك القرش، مثل سمك المطرقة، كانت على ظهر الكوكب لأكثر من ثلاثين مليون سنة.

ولكن في غضون بضعة عقود من الزمان أصبحت ربع أنواع أسماك القرش والراي مهددة بالانقراض. وهذا نتيجة أخطاء ارتكبناها ــ ونحن مسؤولون عن إصلاحها.

وأسماك القرش والراي ليست وحدها. بل وهناك مكونات أخرى عديدة للتنوع البيولوجي البحري ــ وخاصة الشعاب المرجانية، والثدييات البحرية، والطيور البحرية، والسلاحف ــ تكافح أيضاً لتحمل الضغوط التي يفرضها البشر عليها. ونتيجة لهذا فإن النظم الإيكولوجية البحرية معرضة لخطر الانهيار وأصبحت أقل استقراراً وأقل إنتاجية.

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