L'avenir de Chypre passe par la coopération économique

MADRID – Une fois de plus l'Europe est confrontée aux abysses. Mais l'accord provisoire entre Chypre et la troïka (la Commission européenne, le FMI et la BCE) fait que le pire a probablement été évité. Les dépôts importants dans les banques chypriotes seront lourdement taxés et la deuxième banque du pays va être fermée. Mais si l'on regarde vers l'avenir, Chypre a les moyens non seulement de se redresser, mais aussi de mettre fin à sa partition de longue date entre la République de Chypre et la République turque de Chypre du Nord, un micro-Etat soutenu par la Turquie.

Chypre est le dernier pays touché par la crise économique qui frappe la Méditerranée. Depuis des années, une énorme bulle bancaire planait au-dessus de l'île, les actifs de ce secteur étaient estimés à sept fois son PIB, l'argent se déversant à flot dans un paradis fiscal bénéficiant de la sécurité liée à l'environnement de la zone euro.

La conception du plan de secours destiné à Chypre tient tant à la nature exceptionnelle de la bulle bancaire chypriote qu'aux pressions intérieures auxquelles sont confrontés les dirigeants de la zone euro : beaucoup de ces derniers soupçonnent île d'être un centre de blanchiment d'argent sale pour des ressortissants et des entités russes qui auraient injecté 68 milliards d'euros dans les banques chypriotes. Au-delà des détails de l'accord final, le spectre du prêt accordé par la Russie à Chypre en 2011 pourrait déclencher une onde de choc à travers le sud de l'Europe, susceptible de frapper les petits épargnants et d'entraîner une hausse du coût des emprunts pour les Etats.

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