La economía del desarrollo sostenible

PARÍS – Dos escuelas de pensamiento suelen dominar los debates económicos actuales. Según los economistas del libre mercado, los gobiernos deben bajar los impuestos, reducir los reglamentos, reformar la legislación laboral y después dejar el paso libre para que los consumidores consuman y los productores creen puestos de trabajo. Según la economía keynesiana, los gobiernos deben impulsar la demanda total mediante la relajación cuantitativa y el estímulo fiscal. Sin embargo, ninguno de los dos planteamientos está dando buenos resultados. Necesitamos una economía del desarrollo sostenible, en la que los gobiernos promuevan nuevos tipos de inversiones.

La economía del libre mercado produce grandes resultados para los ricos, pero resultados bastante miserables para todos los demás. Los gobiernos de los Estados Unidos y de ciertas partes de Europa están recortando el gasto social, la creación de puestos de trabajo, la inversión en infraestructuras y la formación profesional, porque a los jefes ricos que pagan las campañas electorales de los políticos les va muy bien, precisamente cuando las sociedades en su derredor están desmoronándose.

Sin embargo, las soluciones keynesianas –dinero fácil y grandes déficits presupuestarios– tampoco han logrado los resultados prometidos. Muchos gobiernos probaron a aplicar el gasto para el estímulo después de la crisis financiera de 2008. Al fin y al cabo, a la mayoría de los políticos le encanta gastar un dinero que no tiene. No obstante, el impulso a corto plazo fracasó de dos formas importantes.

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