Ekonomie trvale udržitelného rozvoje

PAŘÍŽ – Zdá se, že dnešním ekonomickým debatám dominují dvě myšlenkové školy. Podle ekonomů volného trhu by vlády měly seškrtat daně, snížit regulace, reformovat zákony o pracovněprávních vztazích a pak vyklidit pole a nechat na spotřebitelích, aby spotřebovávali, a na producentech, aby vytvářeli pracovní místa. Podle keynesiánské ekonomie by naopak vlády měly podpořit celkovou poptávku kvantitativním uvolňováním a fiskálním stimulem. Žádný z obou přístupů však nepřináší dobré výsledky. Potřebujeme tedy novou „ekonomii trvale udržitelného rozvoje“, v jejímž rámci budou vlády podporovat nové typy investic.

Ekonomie volného trhu vede ke skvělým výsledkům pro bohaté, ale hodně mizerným výsledkům pro všechny ostatní. Vlády ve Spojených státech a v některých částech Evropy seškrtávají sociální výdaje, podporu tvorby pracovních míst, investice do infrastruktury a zaměstnanecký výcvik, protože bohatým bossům, kteří platí předvolební kampaně politiků, se daří velmi dobře, ačkoliv se společnost kolem nich drolí.

Ani keynesiánská řešení – snadno dostupné peníze a velké rozpočtové schodky – však zdaleka nepřinesla slibované výsledky. Mnoho vlád zkoušelo po finanční krizi z roku 2008 stimulační výdaje. Většina politiků koneckonců ráda utrácí peníze, které nemá. Krátkodobý impulz však ztroskotal ve dvou významných ohledech.

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