Skyscrappers against a night sky Busà Photography/Getty Images

Шире взгляд на прибыли

БЕРКЛИ – Высокие прибыли обычно рассматриваются как признак экономических талантов компании – результат инноваций и эффективности, создаваемой здоровой конкуренцией. Но как показал новый доклад американского Совета экономических консультантов, у высоких прибылей может быть и другая причина – рыночная концентрация.

В докладе перечислено несколько признаков снижения конкуренции в экономике США, в том числе долгосрочная тенденция спада в создании новых предприятий и аккумуляция гигантских прибылей у небольшого количества компаний. Действуя в соответствии с рекомендациями Совета, президент Барак Обама недавно издал указ, призывающий все американские государственные ведомства использовать свои полномочия для содействия конкуренции.

Тем самым, настал важный момент, чтобы оценить состояние конкуренции в различных секторах экономики США. Во многих отраслях, в том числе самых инновационных, доминирует горстка крупных компаний; некоторые из них обладают очень крупной долей на своих рынках, а их выручка намного превосходит исторические средние уровни. Кроме того, некоторые компании копят деньги или покупают конкурентов, вместо того чтобы использовать свои доходы для создания новых производственных мощностей.

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