extreme wealth Domonkos Angi/Flickr

La economía del reparto de utilidades

BERKELEY – Durante los últimos 35 años, los salarios reales en los Estados Unidos no han podido mantener el ritmo de las ganancias de productividad; para el trabajador no agrícola promedio, las últimas crecieron al doble que los primeros. En cambio, una fracción de los empleados de mayor nivel – normalmente los gerentes generales y los directores ejecutivos – los accionistas y otros dueños del capital reciben una parte cada vez más grande de las ganancias. De hecho, mientras que los salarios reales disminuyeron en aproximadamente un 6% para el 10% inferior de la pirámide de distribución y crecieron en apenas un 5-6% para la media de los trabajadores, se dispararon en más de un 150% para el 1% superior. ¿Cómo puede mejorarse esta tendencia preocupante?

Una solución potencial son los programas de reparto de utilidades de base amplia. Junto con la capacitación y las oportunidades para que los trabajadores participen en la solución de problemas y la toma de decisiones, se ha demostrado que esos programas fomentan el compromiso y la lealtad de los empleados, reducen la rotación y fortalecen la productividady la rentabilidad.

El reparto de utilidades también beneficia a los trabajadores. En efecto, los trabajadores de empresas con programas incluyentes de reparto de utilidades y de propiedad de los trabajadores reciben salarios considerablemente superiores a los de los trabajadores de compañías comparables que no tienen esos programas. Aproximadamente la mitad de las empresas que aparecen en la lista de Fortune de las 100 mejores compañías para trabajar tienen algún tipo de programa de reparto de utilidades o de participación accionaria que no se limita a los ejecutivos.

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