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Проверка парадокса производительности

ВАШИНГТОН – В течение последнего десятилетия в большинстве крупных развитых стран серьёзно замедлился рост производительности, несмотря на впечатляющий прогресс в сфере компьютерных технологий, мобильной связи и робототехники. Предполагалось, что все эти достижения должны повысить производительность. Однако в США, являющихся мировом лидером в области технологических инноваций, средние темпы роста производительности труда в бизнес-секторе в 2004-2014 годах не достигли и половины уровня предыдущего десятилетия. Что происходит?

Существует теория, ставшая в последнее время весьма популярной, согласно которой, так называемого парадокса производительности на самом деле нет. Логика такова: это лишь кажется, будто темпы роста производительности падают, потому что статистика, которой мы пользуемся, не улавливает в полной мере новый прирост производительности. Это особенно касается новых, высококачественных информационных и коммуникационных технологий (ИКТ). Если цены не отражают роста качества новых продуктов, значит, дефляторы цен завышены, а реальные объёмы выпуска занижены.

Более того, как подчёркивают скептики, стандартные показатели производительности рассчитываются на основе ВВП, в котором по определению учитывается только произведённая продукция (выпуск). Так называемый потребительский излишек при этом игнорируется, хотя он быстро растёт, благодаря интернет-сервисам, которые приносят потребителям значительную выгоду по цене, близкой к нулю (например, поисковая система Google или Facebook).

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