ثورة الإنتاجية القادمة

نيويورك ــ بعد قمة مجموعة العشرين التي انعقدت في نوفمبر/تشرين الثاني، أعلن رئيس الوزراء البريطاني ديفيد كاميرون: "إن أضواء التحذير الحمراء عادت تومض من جديد على لوحة قيادة الاقتصاد العالمي". وهو محق، ولكن مكمن الخوف الحقيقي ليس المخاطر المرتبطة بالتحديات القصيرة الأمد مثل عودة اليابان إلى الركود في عام 2014 أو التباطؤ الدائم في منطقة اليورو؛ بل الرياح المعاكسة العاصفة التي سيواجهها العالم بأسره على مدى السنوات الخمسين المقبلة.

برغم فترات الصعود والهبوط المرهقة للأعصاب، فإن الخمسين عاماً الأخيرة جلبت معها مكاسب عالمية غير مسبوقة. فوفقاً لأرقام الناتج المحلي الإجمالي (والذي أعترف بأنه مقياس معيب)، توسع الاقتصاد العالمي بمقدار ستة أضعاف. وتضاعف نصيب الفرد في الدخل ثلاث مرات تقريبا.

وفي العالم النامي، أدى خلق الثروة المستدام والتقدم في مجال الصحة العامة إلى زيادة متوسط العمر المتوقع بنحو عشرين عاماً منذ منتصف سبعينيات القرن العشرين، وانخفضت الأمية بين الكبار إلى النصف تقريباً في السنوات الثلاثين الماضية. وضاقت فجوة التفاوت بين البلدان، مع انتشال أكثر من مليار شخص من براثن الفقر المدقع في العقدين الأخيرين فقط.

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