refugees boat Andreas Solaro/AFP/Getty Images

Le secteur privé doit contribuer à résoudre la crise des réfugiés

BRUXELLES – Le développement ne se résume pas à la réduction de la pauvreté ; il doit aussi être synonyme d’accès à la sécurité, à la stabilité et aux opportunités économiques pour les communautés fragilisées ou appauvries, de sorte que les populations n’aient plus à fuir leur pays natal en quête d’une vie meilleure.  Pour l’Occident, qui tente de faire cesser le flot de réfugiés et de migrants en provenance d’Afrique et du Moyen-Orient, l’aide au développement est une méthode bien plus efficace que l’édification de murs ou de clôtures barbelées.

Mais le développement est trop souvent relégué à l’arrière-plan des préoccupations politiques. La soi-disant « guerre contre le terrorisme », déclarée en 2001, a essaimé en de multiples conflits qui déstabilisent tout le Moyen-Orient, restreignant les libertés publiques, mettant en péril la sécurité des habitants et bouleversant la nature même des sociétés de la région. Les gens sont chassés de leur maison et souvent de leur pays. Le conflit syrien est déjà responsable de cinq millions de personnes déplacées.  

Il paraît raisonnable, bien sûr, de dire que les réfugiés doivent demeurer dans le premier pays où ils trouvent la sécurité. Mais beaucoup veulent aussi échapper à l’instabilité qui frappe leur région. Ils rêvent d’une Europe où non seulement ils connaîtront la paix, mais auront leur chance, et sont prêts à de grands sacrifices pour l’atteindre – y compris à s’embarquer, au péril de leur vie, pour traverser la Méditerranée.

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