Tolerancia o guerra

WASHINGTON, D. C. – A lo largo de la historia y en todo el mundo, el maltrato a las minorías (étnicas, religiosas, lingüísticas, culturales, regionales, ideológicas, sexuales o de cualquier otra clase) fue causa de violencia y devastación de sociedades. Algunos ejemplos tristemente célebres ocurridos durante el siglo pasado incluyen el Holocausto en la Alemania nazi, los campos de la muerte de los Jemeres Rojos en Camboya y el genocidio en Ruanda.

A menudo, el maltrato a las minorías y las reacciones que genera se asocian con líneas de fractura que dividen sociedades conflictuadas. Las minorías suelen sufrir desigualdad económica y marginalización política, y no hay señales de que esta tendencia negativa vaya a aminorar. Si bien los tratados internacionales, las leyes nacionales, el incremento en cantidad y capacidad de las instituciones, la mejora de la educación y los esfuerzos de grupos religiosos organizados que procuran fomentar el respeto a las minorías pueden ayudar a aliviar el problema, hasta ahora los esfuerzos colectivos han sido lastimosamente insuficientes.

Este problema solamente desaparecerá el día en que se deje de tolerar la intolerancia. Pero la historia reciente (desde las matanzas indiscriminadas perpetradas por el Ejército de Resistencia del Señor en África central y oriental, hasta los ataques de los talibanes paquistaníes contra los cristianos) muestra que el fanatismo sigue profundamente arraigado.

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