布什总统与软权力

乔治· · · 布什的第一届总统任期是以单边主义和武力为特点的。美国是世界上唯一的超级大国,所以其他国家不得不言听计从。其结果是美国的“软”权力或者说是吸引性的权力被大为削弱了。国防部长拉姆斯菲尔德曾说他不知软权力为何物。而现在软权力又成为华盛顿的流行词汇。

布什第二篇就职演说的主题是自由和民主的力量。这样的言辞对美国总统来讲也并非新鲜。哈瑞·杜鲁门提到了捍卫全世界的自由民族,而伍德罗·威尔逊则宣扬推进民主。布什第一届任期内的新保守主义与这两者一脉相承,但却忽略了威尔逊和杜鲁门都是与他国协商的制度建立者这一事实。在摒弃了威尔逊的这一半方略后,布什们在一定程度上践踏了自己的主张,使其效果大打折扣。

布什连任之初的执政基调有所不同。正如国务卿赖斯最近在巴黎表示的:“我所说的‘权力’是广义的,因为往往比武力和经济实力更为重要的,是理念、同情和希望的力量。”布什不仅选择在其二月份的欧洲之行中访问欧盟总部布鲁塞尔,他还声称“要达成我们在世界上所寻求的目标需要美国和欧洲保持紧密的伙伴关系”。就连拉姆斯菲尔德也努力表现出温和的一面!

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