La politique de concurrence d’éviction

La récente décision du tribunal de première instance de la Cour européenne de confirmer l’amende et les sanctions imposées par la Commission européenne à Microsoft en 2004 semble justifier l’approche interventionniste de la Commission en matière de politique de concurrence. De plus, l’enquête menée sur Intel depuis cinq ans risque d’entraîner de lourdes pénalités. L’Union européenne ne devrait pas se réjouir de cette victoire apparente sur les grandes entreprises américaines, mais plutôt se demander si ses politiques donnent vraiment une image accueillante de l’Europe pour les entreprises innovantes.

Au sujet de la position dominante de Microsoft, Emma Bonino, Ministre italien du commerce et de l’Europe, a fait observer que le nom même de Microsoft évoque « ce que les Etats‑Unis sont capables de faire ». Pour Bonino, si aucune société de taille comparable n’est née en Europe, c’est parce que « nous n’avons pas été en mesure d’établir un climat propice à son épanouissement ».

La police de concurrence de la Commission européenne ne fera pas progresser la situation dans ce sens. En effet, les entreprises de pointe comme Microsoft et Intel sont des cibles particulièrement mal choisies de la lutte antitrust, car les contrôleurs ne sont pas en mesure de s’adapter à la vitesse de l’« ère d’Internet ».  

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