A display shows a vehicle and person recognition system for law enforcement  SAUL LOEB/AFP/Getty Images

人工智能的预防方针

佛罗伦萨—对世界各地的决策者来说,决策的最佳方法是基于证据,不管可以获得的数据多不完美。但如果事实很少或根本不存在,领导人应该怎么办?对于必须为“先进预测算法”的副作用收拾残局的人来说,这是个问题。先进预测算法是机器学习和人工智能的二进制搭建要素。

在学术界,人工智能思维的学者不是“奇点论者”就是“现代主义者”。奇点论者一般认为,人工智能技术固然给人类造成了生存威胁,但仍然利大于弊。但尽管这一群体中包括了很多技术“大拿”,能吸引大量资金,但他们的学术产出尚不能令人信服地证明他们的结论。

另一方面,现代主义者总是关注新技术的公平性、可问责性和透明性。比如,他们关注自动化如何影响劳动力市场。但在这方面,研究也不具有说服力。比如,《麻省理工学院技术评论》(MIT Technology Review)最近比较了考察预期就业损失的19项主要研究的发现,结果表明,对全球“被消灭”岗位数字的预测为180万—20亿不等。

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