Das makroökonomische Potenzial der Mikrofinanzierung

LONDON – Die Mikrofinanzierung ist im Kern ein Versuch, Finanzdienstleistungen für Menschen bereitzustellen, denen das offizielle Bankensystem nicht – oder zu wenig – zur Verfügung steht. Mit angemessenen Finanzdienstleistungen zu fairen Preisen können die Menschen Ersparnisse aufbauen, die Kosten für unerwartete Notfälle decken und in Gesundheit, Wohnraum und Bildung für ihre Familien investieren.

Die Internationale Finanz-Corporation schätzt, dass die Mikrofinanzierung in den letzten 15 Jahren weltweit etwa 130 Millionen Menschen erreicht hat. In diesem Zeitraum wurde die Mikrofinanzierung für ihr Potenzial gepriesen, die finanzielle Eingliederung zu fördern und Menschen einen Ausweg aus der Armut zu bieten. Doch ist sie auch auf scharfe Kritik gestoßen, zumal einigen Kreditgebern Geschäftemacherei vorgeworfen wurde.

Trotz der weithin bekannten Risiken der Branche kann ihr Potenzial, das Leben der Armen zu verbessern, nicht unbeachtet bleiben. Die Frage lautet nun, wie man sicherstellt, dass aus der Mikrofinanzindustrie die Branche wird, die die Welt braucht. Dazu müssen drei wichtige Schritte unternommen werden.

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