Nový svět zdravotní péče

NEW YORK – Tradiční zdravotnické systémy jsou v potížích. V zemích OECD převládají ve zdravotnických službách nákladné nemocnice a kliniky, které v USA spolknou 97% výdajů na zdravotnictví. Tyto systémy se potýkají s omezováním nákladů, veřejnou poptávkou po vyšší kvalitě a přehnanými očekáváními.

Existuje však i odlišný systém, široce praktikovaný v chudších zemích, které si nemohou dovolit nemocnice v západním stylu, a orientovaný na komunitní zdravotní péči. My potřebujeme oba přístupy a potřebujeme, aby oba fungovaly vedle sebe. Rostoucí propast mezi sliby a realitou zdravotní péče vytvořila v rozvinutých i rozvojových zemích prostor pro nové aktéry, které zajímá spíše sociální chování než biologie.

W. Brian Arthur identifikoval ve svém převratném článku publikovaném v roce 1996 v časopise Harvard Business Review významné rozdíly mezi zdravotnickým systémem, který definuje plánování, hierarchie a kontrola, a systémem charakterizovaným pozorováním, lokalizací a zploštělou strukturou organizací. Podstatou prvního systému jsou podle něj materiály, zpracování a optimalizace. Zaměřuje se zejména na přístup k lékařské péči a obvykle se potýká s klesajícími výnosy.

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