Um mundo de vulnerabilidade

ROMA – Em 2010, os líderes mundiais realizaram um dos Objectivos de Desenvolvimento do Milénio (ODM) de reduzir para metade o número de pobres no mundo, a partir dos níveis de 1990 – cinco anos antes do previsto. Mas o aumento do desemprego e a queda dos rendimentos realçam a contínua ameaça da pobreza por todo o mundo. Afinal de contas, a pobreza não é um atributo inalterável de um grupo fixo; é uma condição que ameaça milhares de milhões de pessoas vulneráveis.

Apesar das suas falhas, as medidas de rendimento são úteis na obtenção de uma melhor compreensão sobre a extensão da pobreza e da vulnerabilidade em todo o mundo. Mas a linha de pobreza do Banco Mundial, a disposição individual de 1,25 dólares para gastos por dia (em termos de poder de compra-paridade), que é utilizada para medir o progresso em direcção à meta de redução da pobreza dos ODM, não é o único limiar relevante. Quando a linha de pobreza atinge a despesa diária de dois dólares per capita, a taxa de pobreza mundial sobe dos 18% para cerca de 40%, sugerindo que muitas pessoas estão a viver um pouco acima da linha de pobreza estabelecida, vulneráveis a choques externos ou a mudanças nas circunstâncias pessoais, tais como o aumento dos preços ou perdas de rendimento.

Três quartos dos pobres do mundo vivem em áreas rurais, onde os trabalhadores agrícolas sofrem a maior incidência de pobreza, em grande parte devido à baixa produtividade, ao desemprego sazonal e aos baixos salários pagos pela maioria dos empregadores rurais. Nas últimas décadas, a vulnerabilidade e a insegurança económica aumentaram com a subida do emprego transitório, casual e precário, incluindo o auto-emprego, os empregos a tempo parcial, a termo, temporários e on-call. O exercício de funções em casa, ocupadas muitas vezes por mulheres, também está em ascensão.

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