L’impératif d’inclusion

WASHINGTON, DC – De grands progrès ont été accomplis vers la réalisation des Objectifs du Millénaire pour le développement (OMD) depuis leur lancement en 2000. Malheureusement, de nombreux pays sont encore malgré tout loin de les atteindre. De plus, même dans les pays qui ont fait des progrès considérables, certains groupes – notamment les peuples autochtones, les habitants de bidonvilles ou de zones reculées, les minorités religieuses ou sexuelles et les personnes handicapées – restent exclus des progrès. Comme met en évidence un récent rapport de la Banque mondiale, en comprendre les raisons est essentiel pour veiller à ce que les futurs efforts de développement soient plus efficaces pour tous.

L'exclusion sociale et économique n’est pas seulement un problème moral, elle est également extrêmement coûteuse. Un rapport de la Banque mondiale de 2010 sur l'exclusion des Roms des systèmes éducatifs et économiques en Europe avait estimé une perte de productivité annuelle de 172 millions de dollars au moins en Serbie, de 273 millions de dollars en République tchèque et de 660 millions de dollars en Roumanie (utilisant les taux de change d’avril 2010).

Ces pertes reflètent les conséquences profondes de l'exclusion. L'Organisation mondiale de la santé et la Banque mondiale ont trouvé que les enfants handicapés sont moins susceptibles d'entrer à l'école que leurs pairs non handicapés – et qu'ils sont également moins susceptibles de rester à l'école. En Indonésie, il y a un écart de 60% entre la part des enfants handicapés et non handicapés qui fréquentent l'école primaire et un écart de 58% pour l'enseignement secondaire. Les sentiments résultant de l'exclusion et de l'aliénation peuvent nuire à la cohésion sociale et même conduire à des troubles et des conflits.

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