包容是一种使命

华盛顿—自2000年启动千年发展目标(Millennium Development Goals,MDGs)以来,我们在实现它们的方向上取得了重大进展。但是,很不幸,许多国家距离实现这些目标仍然十分遥远,即使在取得了重大进步的国家,一些群体——包括原住民、贫民窟或边远地区居民、宗教或其他少数群体以及残疾人士——一直被排除在外。最新世界银行报告强调,弄清排斥的根源对于确保未来发展更加有效、更加包容至关重要。

社会和经济排斥并不只是道德问题;它会带来极大的成本。 2010年世界银行报告估算,罗姆人被排除在欧洲教育和经济体系之外每年至少给塞尔维亚带来1.72亿美元的生产率损失,给捷克带来2.73亿美元损失,给罗马尼亚带来6.6亿美元损失(以2010年4月汇率衡量)。

这些损失反映出排斥的深远影响。世界卫生组织和世界银行发现,残疾儿童比无残疾儿童更加难以进入学校——在校成绩也比较差。在印度尼西亚,残疾和非残疾儿童小学入学率存在60%的差距,初中入学率存在58%的差距。由此带来的排斥感和疏离感可能破坏社会凝聚,甚至导致动荡和冲突。

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