Trump Spencer Platt/Getty Images

市场原教旨主义危机

伦敦—2016年最大的政治惊奇是每个人都如此惊奇。显然,我并非后知后觉:2008年危机后不久,我写了一本书指出,经济崩溃之后将是对政治制度的信心的崩溃,时差大概是五年左右。

此前我们曾目睹过这样的事件序列。马克思和恩格斯在1848年《共产党宣言》中所描述的全球化的第一次崩溃之后是为工人阶级带来前所未有的权利的改革法。一战后英国帝国主义的崩溃之后是罗斯福新政和福利国家。1968年凯恩斯主义经济学的崩溃之后是撒切尔夫人-里根革命。在我的书《资本主义4.0》(Capitalism 4.0)中我指出,2008年危机所预兆的第四次全球资本主义系统性崩溃之后也将发生可比的政治剧变。

当某种资本主义模式取得成功时,物质进步缓解了政治压力。担当经济失灵时——并且失灵不是暂时性阶段,而是深刻矛盾的症候——资本主义的破坏性社会副作用就会成为政治毒药。

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