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Uvedení populistického povstání na své místo

CAMBRIDGE – Tento rok je v mnoha západních demokraciích rokem vzpoury proti elitám. Úspěch kampaně Brexit v Británii, neočekáváné vedení strany Republikánů Donaldem Trumpem v USA a úspěch populistických stran v Německu a jinde, předznamenávají konec jedné éry. Jak tvrdí sloupkař Financial Times Philip Stephens, “současné globální uspořádání – liberální systém založený na pravidlech, založený v roce 1945 a rozšířený po konci studené války – čelí bezprecedentnímu napětí. Globalizace je na ústupu.“

Je ale možná předčasné vyvozovat takto obecné závěry.

Někteří ekonomové současnou vlnu populismu přičítají “hyper-globalizaci“ 90. let, kdy největší pozornost měla liberalizace mezinárodních finančních toků a vytvoření Světové obchodní organizace – a zejména přistoupení Číny v roce 2001. Podle jedné studie zlikvidoval v USA čínský dovoz mezi lety 1999 a 2011 téměř jeden milion pracovních pozic spjatých s výrobou; včetně dodavatelů a dalších spjatých oblastí se dostáváme ke ztrátě téměř 2,4 milionu.

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