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正确对待民粹主义反动

坎布里奇—在许多西方民主国家,今年是反抗精英之年。英国脱欧运动的成功、唐纳德·特朗普出人意料地拿下美国共和党,以及德国和其他国家民粹主义政党的成功让许多人感到震惊,惊叹要变天了。《金融时报》专栏作家菲利普·史蒂芬斯(Philip Stephens):“当前全球秩序——1945年建立起来并在冷战结束后扩大的基于规则的自由制度——遭遇到前所未有的压力。全球化正在撤退。”

事实上,下如此宽泛的结论可能为时尚早。

一些经济学家将目前民粹主义的兴起归因于20世纪90年代的“超级全球化”,其中国际金融流动的自由化和世界贸易组织的成立——特别是2001年中国的加入——最受关注。据一项研究,从1999年到2011年,中国进口品消灭了近一百万个美国制造业岗位;如果包括供应商和相关产业的话,就业损失高达240万。

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