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Gérer les conséquences économiques du nationalisme

LAGUNA BEACH – Les suites du vote inattendu du Royaume-Uni en juin dernier de quitter l'Union européenne sont surveillées de près. Les gens partout dans le monde – et en particulier en Europe – veulent savoir comment le Brexit se déroulera, non seulement en vue de gérer ses effets spécifiques, mais aussi pour mieux comprendre ce qui est susceptible de se produire si d’autres électeurs s’expriment en faveur de programmes nationalistes dans le futur.

Ces programmes sont certainement en train de faire un retour politique. En Allemagne, qui tiendra une élection générale en 2017, le soutien pour le parti d'extrême-droite Alternative pour l'Allemagne (Afd) est à la hausse, comme l’illustrent les solides performances du parti lors des dernières élections régionales. En France, le leader du Front National, Marine Le Pen, espère porter le nationalisme au pouvoir lors de l'élection présidentielle de l'année prochaine.

La tendance ne se cantonne pas à l'Europe. Aux États-Unis, le candidat présidentiel républicain Donald Trump a promis d'imposer des droits de douane à la Chine, de construire un mur à la frontière avec le Mexique et d’empêcher aux musulmans d'entrer dans le pays.

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