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伦敦—美国总统特朗普总是会占领大部分新闻标题,但他其实并不是全球例外。民粹主义独裁者在全世界都在实现突破性崛起掌权,而该趋势最为迅猛的地区又莫过于拉丁美洲,墨西哥左派阿布拉多尔和巴西右翼博尔索纳罗均当选总统。美国抱怨特朗普的独裁倾向固然正确,但正如智利前财政部长安德烈斯·贝拉斯科(Andrés Velasco)所提醒,特朗普与拉丁美洲民粹主义者比起来,只是小巫见大巫。

诚然,这并不意味着墨西哥和巴西经济会得到与查韦斯及其现任强人马杜罗统治下的委内瑞拉一样的命运。查韦斯和马杜罗成功将拉丁美洲最富裕的国家——坐拥全世界四分之一的探明石油储备——变成了一个通胀率超1 000 000%、贫困率超90%的例子。委内瑞拉  3 200万人口中至少有四百万已经逃到国外,预测表明,如果马杜罗继续执政,今年这一数字可能还会翻番。委内瑞拉的困境与其说是来自特朗普时代的经济制裁,不如说是拜其自身的民粹主义领导人所赐。委内瑞拉走下坡路已有多年,其社会和经济指标的下跌远早于特朗普政府履新。


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