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Популизм в прошлом и настоящем

МАДРИД – Практически ни у одной западной демократической страны сегодня, похоже, нет иммунитета от правого популизма. Популистская агитация приближается к апогею, причём с самыми далеко идущими последствиями – наиболее ярким примером стало голосование Великобритании за выход из ЕС. Однако в реальности те формы национализма (или нативизма), которые она представляет, терзают демократические системы уже давно.

Популистские движения обычно заняты поиском виновных. Отец Чарльз Кофлин, римско-католический священник из Детройта, который в 1930-е годы выступал за фашистскую программу для Америки, неустанно искал виновных в проблемах общества. Точно так же сегодняшние правые популисты с жаром набросились на «истеблишмент» и «элиты».

В Европе это означает, что надо во всём, что идёт не так, винить ЕС. Разбираться в сложных причинах нынешних экономических и социальных проблем (например, Великобритания и Франция серьёзно страдают от системы наследственных привилегий и застывшего классового общества) намного труднее, чем обзывать ЕС злобным бегемотом.

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