Poor man with baby at NY

La geopolítica del populismo

SINGAPUR – La gran pregunta a la que se enfrentan ahora mismo los países asiáticos es qué enseñanza extraer de la victoria de Donald Trump en la elección presidencial estadounidense y del referendo por el Brexit (en el que los votantes británicos eligieron abandonar la Unión Europea). Por desgracia, la respuesta no se está buscando en el lugar correcto: el cambio geopolítico.

En vez de eso, han prevalecido las explicaciones económicas. Una dice que la globalización, a pesar de mejorar el bienestar general, también desplaza trabajadores e industrias y aumenta la disparidad de ingresos, lo que crea electorados inquietos como los que apoyaron el Brexit y a Trump. Otra asegura que han sido los avances tecnológicos, más que la globalización, los que agravaron las desigualdades económicas y generaron las condiciones de la conmoción política en los países desarrollados.

En cualquier caso, las autoridades de los países emergentes han identificado la desigualdad como un problema fundamental, y coinciden en buscar iniciativas para mejorar la movilidad social y evitar que la globalización y las nuevas tecnologías desplacen a sus clases medias y trabajadoras, y abran el camino a versiones propias de Trump y el Brexit. Para los países asiáticos, la receta política es clara: cuidar a las poblaciones desfavorecidas y ofrecer capacitación y nuevas oportunidades de empleo a los trabajadores desplazados.

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