Farage Matt Cardy/Stringer

Opuštění pokroku

PAŘÍŽ – Margaret Thatcherová a Ronald Reagan jsou vzpomínáni v souvislosti s revolucí laissez-faire, již zpočátku 80. let zahájili. Vedli kampaně a zvítězili se slibem, že volnotržní kapitalismus sejme pouta růstu a prosperitě. Duchovní otec brexitu Nigel Farage, tehdejší lídr Strany nezávislosti Spojeného království, a americký prezidentský čekatel Donald Trump vedli v roce 2016 kampaně a zvítězili na základě něčeho úplně jiného: nostalgie. Výmluvné je, že stavěli na slibech, že „získají zpět kontrolu“ a „vrátí Americe velikost“ – jinými slovy že vrátí čas.

Jak postřehl Mark Lilla z Columbijské univerzity, Spojené království a USA nejsou jediné země zažívající obrodu zpátečnictví. V mnoha vyspělých i rozvíjejících se zemích se najednou minulost zdá mnohem přitažlivější než budoucnost. Ve Francii se Marine Le Penová, kandidátka nacionalistické pravice v nadcházejících prezidentských volbách, výslovně dovolává éry, kdy francouzská vláda ovládala hranice, chránila průmysl a řídila měnu. Taková řešení v 60. letech fungovala, tvrdí vůdkyně Národní fronty, takže jejich opětovné zavedení by znovu přineslo prosperitu.

Je zřejmé, že u voličů napříč Západem takové apely padají na úrodnou půdu. Hlavní okolnost, z níž tento posun postojů veřejnosti vyrůstá, tkví v tom, že mnoho občanů ztratilo víru v pokrok. Nevěří už, že jim budoucnost přinese zlepšení materiální situace a že jejich děti budou žít lepší život než oni sami. Bojí se pohlédnout vpřed, a proto se obracejí zpátky.

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