Farage Matt Cardy/Stringer

放弃进步

巴黎——历史铭记玛格丽特·撒切尔和罗纳德·里根是因为他们在二十世纪八十年代发动了一场自由放任主义革命。他们竞选获胜是因为承诺自由市场资本主义能够释放增长并且促进繁荣。2016年,时任英国独立党(UKIP)领导人——策划英国退欧的奈杰尔·法拉奇和美国当选总统唐纳德·特朗普竞选获胜的基础截然不同:怀旧。说实话,他们的承诺是“收回控制权”和“让美国再次伟大”——换句话讲,就是拨回历史的时钟。

据哥伦比亚大学的马克·利拉观察,不仅是英国和美国正在经历反动思潮的复兴。在许多发达和新兴国家,过去似乎突然之间变得比未来更吸引人。在法国即将到来的总统大选中,民族主义右翼候选人马琳·勒庞公然怀念的时代是由法国政府保护工业、管理货币和控制边境。国民阵线领导人称这样的方案在二十世纪六十年代曾经有效,因此执行它们或将重现繁荣。

显而易见,这样的呼吁引起了整个西方世界选民的共鸣。导致公众态度转变的主要因素是许多民众已经对进步失去了信心。他们不再相信未来会带来物质上的改善,也不相信他们的子女会拥有更好的生活。他们执着于过去,是因为他们对未来充满担心。

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