El poder de la amapola

Este mes, el Parlamento Europeo adoptó una resolución sobre Afganistán que podría sentar las bases para un nuevo enfoque, libre de prejuicios, para elaborar estrategias a fin de luchar contra los narcóticos en todo el mundo. De hecho, la resolución pide a los participantes de una conferencia de donantes, que se celebrará en Londres a fines de enero, "que tomen en consideración la propuesta de autorizar licencias para la producción de opio con fines medicinales, como ya se ha concedido a otros países".

Esta propuesta fue presentada originalmente por el Senlis Council, que es una organización independiente localizada en París, durante un taller que tuvo lugar en Kabul en septiembre pasado. El texto que introdujeron los demócratas liberales europeos, con el apoyo de casi todos los grupos políticos del Parlamento Europeo, es revolucionario no sólo porque va en contra del pensamiento convencional, sino también porque saca a flote el problema por encima de la estancada realidad de la "guerra contra las drogas". En Afganistán, esa supuesta guerra se ha basado esencialmente en campañas de erradicación y en proyectos de subsistencia alternativos, que sólo han alcanzado resultados limitados. La nueva postura del Parlamento Europeo, puede, espero, marcar el principio de un cambio radical de política por parte de todos los actores involucrados en la reconstrucción de Afganistán.

Según la Oficina de Naciones Unidas contra la Droga y el Delito, pese a los esfuerzos conjuntos para erradicar y sustituir las cosechas, en 2005 Afganistán produjo el 87% del opio mundial -aproximadamente 4.1 toneladas que generaron 2.7 mil millones de dólares de ingresos ilegales, lo que significa casi el 52% del PIB del país. La encuesta de Afganistán sobre el opio de 2005, publicada en noviembre pasado, estima que el valor total de ese opio, una vez que se convierte en heroína y se distribuye en todo el mundo, podría alcanzar más de 40 mil millones de dólares.

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