Le pouvoir du pavot

Le Parlement européen vient d'adopter une résolution sur l'Afghanistan qui pourrait ouvrir la voie à une approche nouvelle et plus ouverte des stratégies mondiales de lutte contre les stupéfiants. Cette résolution invite les participants à une conférence de donateurs, qui doit se tenir à Londres fin janvier, “à prendre en considération la proposition de production autorisée d'opium dans un but médical, telle qu'elle est déjà accordée à un certain nombre de pays.”

Cette proposition a été faite à l'origine par le Conseil de Senlis, organisation indépendante basée à Paris, au cours d'un atelier à Kaboul en septembre dernier. Le texte proposé par les démocrates libéraux européens, soutenu par pratiquement tous les groupes politiques du Parlement européen, est révolutionnaire non seulement parce qu'il va à l'encontre du mode de pensée conventionnel, mais aussi parce qu'il élève le débat au-dessus de la réalité stagnante de la “guerre contre la drogue.” En Afghanistan, cette prétendue guerre est essentiellement basée sur des campagnes d'éradication et des projets de subsistance alternatifs, qui n'ont obtenu que peu de résultats. La nouvelle position du Parlement européen pourrait, je l'espère, marquer le début d'un changement radical de politique par tous les acteurs impliqués dans la reconstruction de l'Afghanistan.

Selon l'office de l'ONU contre la drogue et le crime, malgré des efforts concertés visant l'éradication et la substitution des récoltes, l'Afghanistan a produit 87% de l'opium mondial en 2005 – environ 4,1 tonnes – générant 2,7 milliards de dollars de revenus illégaux, ce qui revient à environ 52% du PIB du pays. L'enquête sur la production d'opium en Afghanistan en 2005, publiée en novembre dernier, estime que la valeur totale de cet opium, une fois transformé en héroïne et distribué dans le monde, pourrait atteindre plus de 40 milliards de dollars.

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