Congolese refugee in Uganda AFP/Stringer

De que forma os países pobres pagam a factura dos refugiados

PARIS — A crise de refugiados da Síria chamou a atenção para a necessidade de melhorar a gestão dos fluxos de refugiados durante os períodos de crise. Uma questão é particularmente preocupante: os países pobres podem estar a pagar um elevado preço indirecto pelos esforços dos países ricos.

Os dados mostram que uma parte substancial dos custos associados ao afluxo de refugiados e aos requerentes de asilo em alguns países europeus está a ser considerada como ajuda pública ao desenvolvimento (APD) — a medida que o Comité de Ajuda ao Desenvolvimento da OCDE (CAD) utiliza para acompanhar a despesa com a ajuda internacional. Esta situação deixa menos APD disponível para lançar, manter ou expandir projectos de desenvolvimento económico nos países pobres.

Em 2015, os países da União Europeia membros do CAD gastaram 9,7 mil milhões de dólares do seu orçamento consagrado à APD em cerca de 1,2 milhões de requerentes de asilo nos seus próprios países. Em termos comparativos, gastaram 3,2 mil milhões de dólares de APD na Síria, Afeganistão, Somália, Sul do Sudão e Sudão — os cinco principais países de onde os requerentes de asilo fugiram.

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