Congolese refugee in Uganda AFP/Stringer

Cara Negara Miskin Membiayai Pengungsi

PARIS – Krisis Pengungsi Suriah telah menyoroti kebutuhan untuk memperbaiki tata kelola gelombang pengungsi pada masa krisis. Salah satu permasalahan yang paling mengkhawatirkan adalah adanya kemungkinan bahwa negara-negara miskin secara tidak langsung akan menanggung dampak yang besar atas upaya negara-negara maju.

Data menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar biaya yang berhubungan dengan gelombang pengungsi dan pencari suaka di beberapa negara-negara Eropa digolongkan dalam bantuan resmi untuk pembangunan (ODA) – yang merupakan sebuah pengukuran yang digunakan oleh Komite Bantuan Pembangunan OECD (DAC) untuk menghitung pengeluaran bantuan internasional. Hal ini menyebabkan lebih sedikitnya anggaran yang dimiliki ODA untuk meluncurkan, mempertahankan, atau mengembangkan proyek pembangunan ekonomi di negara-negara miskin.

Pada tahun 2015, negara-negara anggota Uni Eropa yang merupakan anggota DAC menghabiskan $ 9.7 milyar dari anggaran ODA untuk 1.2 juta pencari suaka di negara mereka. Namun sebagai perbandingan, mereka menghabiskan $ 3.2 milyar anggaran ODA di Suriah, Afganistan, Sudan Selatan dan Sudan – yang merupakan kelima negara asal pencari suaka terbanyak.

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