贫困国家GDP的问题

西雅图——即使在财政充裕期,发展援助预算也不会富裕。政府领袖和捐款方不得不决定将有限的资源用在哪里。你如何确定哪国该拿到低息贷款或廉价疫苗,哪国有能力为自己的发展计划出资?

关键在于我们对发展和人民生活改善的衡量方式。传统上人均GDP(即一国生产的年度商品和服务价值除以该国人口)一直是重要的指导因素。但最贫困国家的GDP指标可能并不准确,不仅决策层和像我这样看过很多世行报告的人关注这一问题,想用统计数据为世界最贫困人口提供帮助的人都应该注意。

我一直认为即使在计量手段相对精确的富国,GDP也因为很难比较不同时期的一揽子商品价值而对经济增长产生低估的效果。比方说20世纪60年代美国一套百科全书售价非常昂贵,但它能为有好学孩子的家庭带来的价值却不可低估。(这个问题上我有资格现身说法,因为我曾花了大量时间研读父母为姐姐和我购买的多卷本《世界图书百科全书》)。而现在的孩子从网上免费获取的信息量远比这多得多。如何在GDP中衡量上述因素?

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.

required

Log in

http://prosyn.org/HSx6OjK/zh;
  1. An employee works at a chemical fiber weaving company VCG/Getty Images

    China in the Lead?

    For four decades, China has achieved unprecedented economic growth under a centralized, authoritarian political system, far outpacing growth in the Western liberal democracies. So, is Chinese President Xi Jinping right to double down on authoritarianism, and is the “China model” truly a viable rival to Western-style democratic capitalism?

  2. The assembly line at Ford Bill Pugliano/Getty Images

    Whither the Multilateral Trading System?

    The global economy today is dominated by three major players – China, the EU, and the US – with roughly equal trading volumes and limited incentive to fight for the rules-based global trading system. With cooperation unlikely, the world should prepare itself for the erosion of the World Trade Organization.

  3. Donald Trump Saul Loeb/Getty Images

    The Globalization of Our Discontent

    Globalization, which was supposed to benefit developed and developing countries alike, is now reviled almost everywhere, as the political backlash in Europe and the US has shown. The challenge is to minimize the risk that the backlash will intensify, and that starts by understanding – and avoiding – past mistakes.

  4. A general view of the Corn Market in the City of Manchester Christopher Furlong/Getty Images

    A Better British Story

    Despite all of the doom and gloom over the United Kingdom's impending withdrawal from the European Union, key manufacturing indicators are at their highest levels in four years, and the mood for investment may be improving. While parts of the UK are certainly weakening economically, others may finally be overcoming longstanding challenges.

  5. UK supermarket Waring Abbott/Getty Images

    The UK’s Multilateral Trade Future

    With Brexit looming, the UK has no choice but to redesign its future trading relationships. As a major producer of sophisticated components, its long-term trade strategy should focus on gaining deep and unfettered access to integrated cross-border supply chains – and that means adopting a multilateral approach.

  6. The Year Ahead 2018

    The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

    Order now