La pérdida de legitimidad democrática del islam político

DURHAM – Este año los partidos políticos islamistas han sufrido retrocesos importantes en dos países predominantemente musulmanes: Egipto y Turquía. Sin embargo, es demasiado pronto como para descartar el islamismo político como un participante capaz, o incluso una fuerza principal, de una democracia pluralista.

Apenas un año después de que Mohamed Morsi, de los Hermanos Musulmanes, se convirtiera en el primer presidente electo de Egipto, millones de egipcios se han manifestado en las calles, convirtiéndose en el detonador del golpe militar que lo provocó su caída. Su incompetencia política y falta de visión ante el colapso económico habrían bastado para reducir el apoyo a su gobierno. Pero su rechazo al pluralismo y sus medidas para establecer una dictadura islámica, (por ejemplo, mediante su intento de centralizar el poder en su partido y situarse fuera del alcance del poder judicial egipcio) resultaron ser su perdición.

De manera similar, en Turquía el Primer Ministro Recep Tayyip Erdogan del Partido por la Igualdad y el Desarrollo (AKP) ha adoptado una manera de gobernar que está deshaciendo una década de progreso que se caracterizó por el dinamismo económico, el rápido crecimiento y la subordinación de las fuerzas armadas al control civil. La brutal represión por parte de su gobierno de las protestas populares contra los planes de construir sobre el Parque Taksim Gezi de Estambul hizo que el país luciera a los ojos del mundo como una dictadura unipartidista. Para empeorar las cosas, tras ello Erdogan dedicó semanas a trastocar el pluralismo mediante discursos polarizadores que estigmatizaban a los turcos que no comparten su conservadurismo social ni suscriben a su particular interpretación del islam.

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