Польская Жакерия

"Будь благословен ... крестьянин, который рождается, ест и умирает, и о делах которого никто не беспокоится." Так писал когда-то Джузеппе Верди, итальянский журналист, больше, однако, известный своими музыкальными сочинениями. То, о чем думал Верди, было возможно в 19-том столетии и на протяжении предшествующих тысячи лет, но не теперь. И на самом деле, более вероятно обратное. К примеру, в Польше крестьяне не только хотят кричать всему миру о своих делах, они хотят переделать Польшу в на свой манер.

В своей книге « Век крайностей» Эрик Хобсбаум утверждал, что в 20-ом столетии, величайшей переменой, произошедшей на Западе, было резкое уменьшение количества людей, занимавшихся крестьянским трудом. Везде, куда не глянь, крестьяне почти исчезли.

Но не в Восточной Европе. Экономики советского образца, возможно и выдавали себя за воплощение индустриальной модернизации, но в большинстве стран, бывших сателлитов СССР, марксистко-ленинское экономическое учение приковало к крестьянским подворьям огромное количество людей. В Польше в наши дни, когда страна стремится стать членом Евросоюза, эта резервная армия крестьян является источником наиболее серьезного конфликта со времен падения коммунизма.

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