La mission chrétienne de la Pologne en Europe

La semaine dernière, le président (ex-communiste) de la Pologne a demandé à ce qu'une référence explicite à l'héritage chrétien de l'Europe soit insérée dans la future constitution européenne. D'autres se sont contentés de murmurer un tel souhait. José Casanova explique pourquoi la Pologne a publiquement pris la tête de ce mouvement.

Le lien entre le christianisme et la civilisation européenne se dénoue. L'Europe de l'Ouest représente de moins en moins le coeur de la civilisation chrétienne et les formes les plus dynamiques du christianisme actuel sont de moins en moins européennes. C'est cependant dans cet environnement que la Pologne catholique « rejoint l'Europe ».

Au cours des années pendant lesquelles les sociétés d'Europe de l'Ouest subissaient un processus de sécularisation (en fait, de « déchristianisation »), le catholicisme polonais connaissait un extraordinaire renouveau. Toutes les tentatives du régime communiste pour rompre les liens entre l'église catholique et la nation polonaise avaient échoué. La sécularisation forcée imposée par les hauts dirigeants (qui a connu un certain succès en Union Soviétique) avait échoué de manière abjecte. L'espoir qu'un développement économique engendrerait le même effet sécularisant qu'en Europe de l'Ouest s'était également révélé mensonger.

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