Polands Constitutional Court Chief Justice Janek Skarzynski/Getty Images

波兰司法独立的重要性

布达佩斯—在经过一段时间的推迟后,由法律和正义党(PiS)控制波兰政府终于就欧盟委员会提出的关于其对司法独立所发动的立法攻势的关切做出了回应。但是,据欧盟委员会第一副主席弗朗斯·提默曼斯(Frans Timmermans)透露,波兰仍然拒绝合作,也没有说要“采取任何实质措施解决所提出的问题。”

The Year Ahead 2018

The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

Order now

欧盟是否会使用可用的政治和经济工具制裁波兰政府还有待观察。我们认为应该这样做——并且要果断、迅速。PiS用政治控制波兰法院的企图违反了欧盟的基本民主价值观,也威胁到其单一市场的治理。目前,欧盟方面继续不作为可能会威胁到经济一体化大计。

不同发展水平的经济体之间的市场一体化主要依靠监管标准化。单一市场能够运转,是因为荷兰和波兰的企业家都认为会受到同一套规则的管理,不管他们是在意大利、匈牙利、法国还会保加利亚销售产品或投资。这些共同的规则不仅由欧盟法院和官僚机构执行,也由成员国法院执行。

但是,执行共同规则的欧盟框架并不天然授予每个成员国同样的收益。20世纪80年代,市场一体化如火如荼的时候,欧盟一致同意,经济较不发达的成员国,在它们赶上欧盟平均发展水平之前,可以获得转移支付。如今,这些转移支付占了欧盟预算的三分之一左右,相当于接受转移支付经济体GDP的2—5%。

这一安排是为了降低欧盟成员国之间的差异,从而不再需要转移支付。但它永远存在一个关键性缺陷:欧盟控制负责确保接受转移国家合理使用转移支付的国家机构的权威非常有限。而一国的司法机关是这些机构中最重要的一个。

我们研究了17个中欧和东欧国家的国家能力的演化如何影响经济发展,结果发现,独立司法具有核心重要性。胜任的独立法院是推动专业国家官僚体系发展的主要力量。没有司法监督,就无法保证监督机构会有效公正地监控和执行市场竞争规则。

我们还发现,加强司法独立在国家加入欧盟之前便已经在刺激经济发展。当一国的法院更加可靠、更加可预测,其不久以后出口就会开始增加,技术负责度也开始上升。

同样地,如果司法不独立或不可靠,就会阻碍经济发展。如果本国企业无法依靠法院作出公正一致的判决,就会认为成功不取决于企业家精神,而取决于裙带主义或对市场先入者的忠诚(loyalty)。因此,他们会减少投资,回避创新。

匈牙利的最近经验表明,如果先入者不害怕司法监督,就会对较弱的市场参与者做出侵略性行为,从而捕获更大经济份额。这最终会导致公共收入下降,迫使政府寻找其他方式为基本公共品筹资。为了保持经济增长和权力,政府就更加依赖于欧盟转移支付。

波兰和匈牙利政府将单一市场元勋们最大的噩梦变成了现实。在这两个国家,能够帮助本国行为人得益于市场一体化的机构被削弱——更不用说公民权利和机会了——但导致这一情况的反自由体制仍然能够获得欧盟资金。

这种状态暴露了欧盟层面控制欧盟资金在成员国内部使用情况的局限性;也表明国家机构的发展很容易就会开倒车。单一市场成立时,许多人认为它将为本国企业和决策者提供足够的激励发展可靠的国家层面的机构,以便抓住诱人的新机会。但这一假设的缺陷现在已经尽显无疑。

十年前,金融危机后的希腊悲剧表明,先入者未必能够自动发展出强大的机构。而从今天的波兰和匈牙利身上,我们看到,反自由政府甚至会为了政治利益削弱本国的机构。欧盟应该在其他成员国政府效仿它们的例子之前采取果断措施。

http://prosyn.org/yzclwpU/zh;

Handpicked to read next

  1. Patrick Kovarik/Getty Images

    The Summit of Climate Hopes

    Presidents, prime ministers, and policymakers gather in Paris today for the One Planet Summit. But with no senior US representative attending, is the 2015 Paris climate agreement still viable?

  2. Trump greets his supporters The Washington Post/Getty Images

    Populist Plutocracy and the Future of America

    • In the first year of his presidency, Donald Trump has consistently sold out the blue-collar, socially conservative whites who brought him to power, while pursuing policies to enrich his fellow plutocrats. 

    • Sooner or later, Trump's core supporters will wake up to this fact, so it is worth asking how far he might go to keep them on his side.
  3. Agents are bidding on at the auction of Leonardo da Vinci's 'Salvator Mundi' Eduardo Munoz Alvarez/Getty Images

    The Man Who Didn’t Save the World

    A Saudi prince has been revealed to be the buyer of Leonardo da Vinci's "Salvator Mundi," for which he spent $450.3 million. Had he given the money to the poor, as the subject of the painting instructed another rich man, he could have restored eyesight to nine million people, or enabled 13 million families to grow 50% more food.

  4.  An inside view of the 'AknRobotics' Anadolu Agency/Getty Images

    Two Myths About Automation

    While many people believe that technological progress and job destruction are accelerating dramatically, there is no evidence of either trend. In reality, total factor productivity, the best summary measure of the pace of technical change, has been stagnating since 2005 in the US and across the advanced-country world.

  5. A student shows a combo pictures of three dictators, Austrian born Hitler, Castro and Stalin with Viktor Orban Attila Kisbenedek/Getty Images

    The Hungarian Government’s Failed Campaign of Lies

    The Hungarian government has released the results of its "national consultation" on what it calls the "Soros Plan" to flood the country with Muslim migrants and refugees. But no such plan exists, only a taxpayer-funded propaganda campaign to help a corrupt administration deflect attention from its failure to fulfill Hungarians’ aspirations.

  6. Project Syndicate

    DEBATE: Should the Eurozone Impose Fiscal Union?

    French President Emmanuel Macron wants European leaders to appoint a eurozone finance minister as a way to ensure the single currency's long-term viability. But would it work, and, more fundamentally, is it necessary?

  7. The Year Ahead 2018

    The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

    Order now