Demonstration in Poland Wiktor Dabkowski via ZUMA Wire

La amenaza polaca para Europa

VARSOVIAPolonia se ha convertido en el último campo de batalla europeo en una contienda entre dos modelos de democracia –liberal y antiliberal-. La abrumadora victoria electoral en octubre del partido de extrema derecha Ley y Justicia (PiS) de Jaroslaw Kaczyński ha derivado en algo más parecido a un cambio de régimen que a una entrega habitual del poder entre gobiernos elegidos democráticamente. La nueva administración de la primera ministra Beata Szydło ha purgado a la burocracia gubernamental (incluidas la radio y la televisión públicas), ha llenado la Corte Constitucional de simpatizantes y ha debilitado la capacidad de la Corte para derogar leyes.

En respuesta, la Comisión Europea ha lanzado una investigación oficial de las posibles violaciones de los estándares del régimen de derecho de la UE. Es más, Standard & Poor’s, por primera vez, ha rebajado la calificación de moneda extranjera de Polonia –de A- a BBB+- y ha advertido de posibles recortes adicionales en el futuro en tanto acusa al gobierno de debilitar “la independencia y efectividad de las instituciones fundamentales”. Crecientes dudas sobre el compromiso de las nuevas autoridades de Polonia con la democracia han agudizado el derrumbe del mercado bursátil de Polonia y contribuido a una depreciación del złoty polaco.

Polonia es el país más grande de la Unión Europea en abrazar el antiliberalismo; pero no es el primero. El gobierno del primer ministro húngaro, Viktor Orbán, ha estado enfrentada a la UE durante varios años por su abierta politización de las instituciones húngaras, a la vez que el gobierno de Robert Fico en la vecina Eslovaquia ha implementado una forma similar de mayoritarismo puro.

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